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Richard Schwartz, Ph.D.

The Internal Family Systems (IFS) model is based on the theoretical model that each individual is comprised of a Self and multiple parts. The Self is the core, compassionate, and curious center of one's being. The parts can be seen as subpersonalities or distinct internal voices that serve protective or healing functions.


There are three main categories of parts: Exiles, Managers, and Firefighters. Exiles are parts that carry burdens such as trauma, pain, and negative beliefs. They are often suppressed by other parts to avoid pain. Managers are parts that try to control situations and protect the individual from getting hurt. They aim to prevent exiled parts from emerging. When the Managers fail at suppressing the Exile parts, the Firefighters try to distract the Self with impulsive behaviors, like addictive behaviours (alcohol, drug use, video games, gambling, etc.), self-harming behaviours (disordered eating, cutting, suicidal ideation, etc.), or rage.


What makes IFS different from many other therapeutic approaches is that IFS is a Non-Pathologizing Model. Schwartz emphasizes that there are no "bad" parts. Every part has a positive intention for the individual, even if their actions or effects can sometimes be harmful or negative. The idea is to approach each part with curiosity and without judgment and for the individual to connect the Self with its parts.


The role of the therapist in IFS therapy is to help clients access the Self and to facilitate conversations between the Self and the various parts. This helps in understanding, unburdening, and reintegrating parts. Schwartz argues that understanding and applying the IFS model is not just therapeutic but also transformative in other areas of life. Recognizing the multiplicity of the mind can lead to increased self-awareness, improved relationships, and personal growth.


No Bad Parts is a comprehensive guide to the IFS model, providing readers with both theoretical understanding and practical tools. By recognizing and honouring each part, individuals can heal from trauma, achieve internal harmony, and lead more fulfilled lives.

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